Archive for January, 2013

The Amazonian

The other next chestnut trees had agreed to the idea and had asked to the old friend: Lady of the trees, what we will make to control the ambition of these intruders being knocked down all the chestnut trees wanting to be rich? if does not worry, at the certain moment will appear an idea. Now they are alert. colonists knocked down the trees without mattering if they were wood to be industrialized or not. When they dried leves displayed fire destroying everything on the land alone sobravam leached ashes. At that time Rondnia it practically had security, the people lived as in the films of Faroestes, each one created its proper rule, walked armed in any place, killed the animals alone to have fun itself. The old immovable chestnut tree, with the roots cravadas in the ground, remained producing fruits with abundance feeding all that way passed.

The ambitious lumber already possua motion mountain ranges, trucks and carregadeiras etcs The poor chestnut trees trembled with terror when hearing the snore of the motion-mountain range and of the trucks in the forests, they only waited the moment to be knocked down and transformed into boards, palanques and houses. The old there immovable chestnut tree, heard a racket of human beings approaching, was worried. The man arrived well next at that enormous tree and said: Vejam! The biggest chestnut tree already seen in all the Amazonian forest, we go to rest a little in low of it and later we go to knock down it and to load the trucks for today. The chestnut tree hearing that soon thought about a form to stop with that destruction, whispering with the twigs the side of the colleagues next said: Children! The assassins of trees had arrived, go to prepare our fruits and when they to sleep, launch fruits on them. The other chestnut trees had heard its intently lady accepting the orders. When the men were sleeping a deep sleep to the chestnut trees had started to launch chestnuts on them. The terrified lumber were crawled, all hurt trying to run away from the chestnut shots, but little the lumber head advanced only saved itself being paralytic. This former, lumber one, a defender of the Amazonian forest became, counts to this history for all the people to its conviviality. Still he says that the chestnut tree exists ties today, nor a lumber obtains to come close itself wants of the place without being reached by fruits of chestnuts and onslaught of animals that if take refuge under of the shade of the old chestnut tree.

The Sovereign

Regarding the associates, they take the people name collectively, and are called in particular citizens, as participant of the sovereign authority, and vassals, as submitted to the laws of the State. ' ' (ROUSSEAU. 2004, P. 32) Rousseau says that the associates to the body politician, the ones that form this body, are called ' ' povo' ' , ' ' cidados' ' ' ' vassalos' '. For this optics the partner of the ambiguous State has definition, however people for is related to the organization with common interest, however citizen that has the civil lawful possession and politicians established for the State, however vassal that he is subject to the dependence of one gentleman, as was the case of the feudal vassals and you. But, vassal seems a pejorativa classification in our century, if not a term in disuse because of the rights acquired and kept for the State its partners. However, this term (vassal) in them leads the semifreedom condition where the partner is inserted, for its action is duly warned law and subject to punishment in accordance with the judgment of its behaviors, but, also, leads in them to another optics that is of subjection. Ademais, interests us another term that in the cited Rousseau does not define that he is ' ' eleitor' '.

The politician, writer and philosopher Charles-Louis de Secondat, or Charles de Montesquieu, woollen Mr. Brde or only baron of Montesquieu (1689 – 1755), in its book ' ' The spirit of leis' ' it says that ' ' (…) it agrees that, in each main place, the inhabitants choose a representative for si' ' , that is, the people cannot if he governs by itself, but that agreement is necessary in common to opt to a member of its society so that governs for all and for all. ' ' All the citizens, in the diverse districts, must have the right to choose its representative; except that they are in such state of baseness, that if considers that it does not have will prpria' ' (MONTESQUIEU.

Old Republic

The difficulty of classroom organization, of the formation of representative associations and parties made of the authoritarian solution an attraction constante' '. 12 What dumb from the New State it is that the authoritarianism of Vargas, is not the authoritarianism of colonels of the Old Republic. We can say that it follows the aspects of the ideologies of the European totalitarismos. He has broken myself of the idea that the State would have to organize the society, or the society would have to be organized from the State, therefore it imagined that the society did not have conditions of if organizing without a strong State. ' ' The authoritarian chain did not bet in the party and yes in the Estado' '. 13 Even so the authoritarianism and the totalitarianism possessed distinct aspects, Vargas, as well as in regimes totalitarian knew to use itself the propaganda, as much to organize the coup d etat, how much to support it as to be able in the years that if had followed. As well as the fascism and nazism, the State of Vargas was a propagandist State. In Italy, according to Perry: ' ' The propaganda fascist inculcou habits of disciplines and obedience: ' Mussolini always has razo'.

' It believes! It obeys! It fights! '. The press, the cinema and the radio idealized the life under the fascism, leaving implicit that it eradicates the crime, the poverty, and the tensions sociais' '. 14 Regarding the propaganda, it in the government Vargas it served for ' ' glorificar' ' the figure of the president, as the proper State and the cult to the leader, this also was a mark of Vargas. On the social crimes and tensions, this in many times is silenced by the proper machine of the State. Social tensions are calmed, unions control the masses, that have many of its taken care of claims.

Victor Hugo

Weaveeing the critical critical A literary he was one of the first types that had appeared with the intention to analyze workmanships as books, romances, poetry, among others literary manifestations. It if of the one in the measure where consecrated authors make critical of its colleagues or its proper ones as he happened with Victor Hugo, Zola and Machado de Assis. Thus being, literary critic, – other critics exist: as of cinema, theater etc then, he starts to be the professional who evaluates, he judges, he investigates and he comments the literary compositions. So that this happens is necessary all a preparation technician and the knowledge of the diverse schools and styles. She is necessary to know to evaluate the workmanship, the creation, without intending to weave a picture psychological of the author. However, it is in the subjectivity that if unmasks the philosophical position, cultural politics and of the author. Face to the workmanship, we can get the biographical information, the historical consideraes on the social political situation of the moment, the society, thought of the intellectuals.

We can say that, many times, are about true ' ' garimpo' '. It is not to toa that the critics are, most of the time, badly seen, criticized with hardness and enclosed in one of the types of critics: the pretense critics (that sporadical they weave some critical one), the writers/theoreticians, those that methodically are turned to the study of the literary creations, and those that never if had ventured in the branch of the critical one and do not accept no intromission in its workmanship. It is well certain that still the critical one of the mutual compliment exists, critical the most emotional one of what multicriteria and of ' ' preparation of manioc meal-prazeres' '. However, in critical literary, we must not have the pretension to know all the answers to the text/workmanship inquired – the important one is to possess a correct intuition concerning these answers.